Elections in Libya

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On 7 July 2012, the National Transitional Council, in power since the Libyan Civil War, supervised democratic elections for a 200-member General National Congress to replace the Council.[1] The assembly was to choose a prime minister and organize parliamentary elections in 2013.[1] A process to write a constitution was also to be determined.[1] Unrest driven by armed militias, ethnic minority and radical groups undermined the process and the government for the years following the overthrowing of Muammar Gaddafi. While internal apathy towards democratic reforms slowed the process, external bodies such as the European Union were still pressing for the establishment of a national dialogue to build consensus for the drafting of a new constitution to take place before the end of 2014.[2] Parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held on 25 June 2014 in a move aimed at stabilizing the country and quelling the unrest.[3]

Electoral bodies[edit]

According to Article 157 of the 2017 draft Libyan constitution, the Libyan High National Election Commission (HNEC) is responsible for organising elections of national political bodies in Libya.[4]

The Central Commission of Municipal Council Elections (CCMCE) was created in 2018 for organising municipal elections in 2018 to replace councils elected in 2014.[4] It started holding these elections in 2019 in March and April.[5][6][7][8]

2012 elections[edit]

National Forces Alliance714,76948.1439
Justice and Construction Party152,44110.2717
Union for Homeland66,7724.502
National Front Party60,5924.083
National Centrist Party59,4174.002
Homeland Party51,2923.450
Moderate Ummah Assembly21,8251.471
Authenticity and Renewal18,7451.261
National Party For Development and Welfare17,1581.161
Al-Hekma (Wisdom) Party17,1291.151
Authenticity and Progress13,6790.921
Libyan National Democratic Party13,0920.881
National Parties Alliance12,7350.861
Ar-Resalah (The Message)7,8600.531
Centrist Youth Party7,3190.491
Wadi Al-Hayah Party6,9470.472
Libya – The Hope6,0930.411
Labaika National Party3,4720.231
Libyan Party for Liberty and Development2,6910.181
Arrakeeza (The Foundation)1,5250.101
Nation and Prosperity1,4000.091
National Party of Wadi ash-Shati'1,3550.091
Other parties226,41515.250
Valid votes1,484,72384.13
Invalid/blank votes280,11715.87
Total votes1,764,840100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,865,93761.58
Source: Gender Concerns International

2014 elections[edit]

Constituent Assembly[edit]

HNEC organised the 2014 Libyan Constitutional Assembly election of 60 representatives in February 2014.[9][10][11]

House of Representatives[edit]

The Libyan election commission on 20 May 2014 announced elections would be held on 25 June 2014.[3]

Future elections[edit]

Presidential and parliamentary elections in Libya were scheduled for December 24, 2021; however these were indefinitely postponed by the High National Elections Commission, due to failure to agree on the electorial rules.[12]

As of 2023, Libya had two competing governments, the Government of National Unity (GNU) sited in Tripoli and the Government of National Stability (GNS) in Sirte, formed in March 2022, and supported by the House of Representatives (HoR).[12] The High Council of State (HCS) is now essentially the legislative body for the GNU. In March 2023 both legislative bodies passed an amendment to the Libyan Constitution providing a broad framework for elections; however, numerous disagreements still exist about implementation.[12][13]

In November 2023, despite objections from members of the High Council of State and the reservations expressed by the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL),[14] the House of Representatives ordered the official publication of election rules in the Official Gazette.[15] The regulations were developed by the 6 + 6 Joint Committee of the HoR and the HCS.[16]

Historical elections[edit]

Libya under Gaddafi[edit]

National elections were indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees. The head of government was elected by the General People's Congress. The last such election was held in March 2010.

Libya's parliament consisted of a unicameral General People's Congress. Its members were elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees.

Suffrage was 18 years of age; universal and technically compulsory.

Kingdom of Libya[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Gumuchian, Marie-Louise, and Hadeel Al Shalchi. "Libyans celebrate free vote despite violence". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "A European agenda to support Libya's transition". European Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Libya to hold elections in a bid to defuse violence". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Project Document – Libya – Local Elections" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 4 February 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Libya holds municipal elections in first vote for five years". Middle East Monitor. 31 March 2019. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  6. ^ "UN envoy hails Libyans' keenness on holding municipal elections despite war". The Libya Observer. 20 April 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  7. ^ Alharathy, Safa (28 April 2019). "Sabha holds municipal council elections". The Libya Observer. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  8. ^ "Central Committee for Municipal Elections confirms the election of six new mayors to municipal councils". The Libya Observer. 1 May 2019. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Constitutional assembly candidates being registered". Libya Herald. 21 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  10. ^ Elumami, Ahmed (21 February 2014). "Election re-runs next Wednesday says Elabbar". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  11. ^ Elumami, Ahmed (2 March 2014). "HNEC announces results for Constitutional Committee elections". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 2014-03-10. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  12. ^ a b c Emig, Addison (16 August 2023). "Libya's Elusive Elections: Will 2023 Be the Year for Elections?". Wilson Center. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023.
  13. ^ "High State Council passes 13th amendment – paving way for Libyan elections?". Libya Herald. 2 March 2023.
  14. ^ Assad, Abdulkader (27 July 2023). "UNSMIL warns against unilateral initiatives in Libya". The Libyan Observer.
  15. ^ Assad, Abdulkader (2 November 2023). "Libya's HoR publishes controversial election laws in Official Gazette". The Libyan Observer.
  16. ^ Alharathy, Safa (6 April 2023). "6 + 6 Committee holds first meeting at HCS HQ in Tripoli". The Libyan Observer. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023.